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Videnskabelige artikler - meteorologi

2014

 

2013

Gonzales, I., Hildago, J., Baklanov, A., Korsholm, U., Nuterman, R., Mahura, A., Santa-Coloma, O. (2013): Urban boundary layer analysis in a coastal terrain using Enviro-HIRLAM, Theoretical and applied climatology, DOI: 10.1007/s00704-012-0808-6.

Nielsen, K. P., G. Wilke, L. Larsen (2013): Solar-PV-Meter, in, EU PVSEC proceedings, 28th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, 5CO.5.2,
https://www.eupvsec-proceedings.com/proceedings/download/paper23898.pdf, 3663 - 3665, doi:10.4229/28thEUPVSEC2013-5CO.5.2.

Nielsen, K. P., Gleeson, E., Rontu, L. (2013): Radiation sensitivity tests of the HARMONIE 37h1 NWP model by K. P. Nielsen, E. Gleeson, and L. Rontu, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss, 6, 6775-6834.
http://www.geosci-model-dev-discuss.net/6/6775/2013/, doi:10.5194/gmdd-6-6775-2013.

Solgaard, Anne M., Johan M. Bonow, Peter L. Langen, Peter Japsen, Christine S. Hvidberg (2013): Mountain building and the initiation of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 392, 161-176.

 

 

 

 

 

2012

Special Issue “Integration of geospheres in Earth systems: Modern queries to environmental physics, modelling, monitoring and education”. Editors Baklanov, AA, VG Bondur, Z Bencetiæ Klaiæ, SS Zilitinkevich. Journal Geofizika, 2012: 29 (1). 

First Issue of new Elsevier Journal Urban Climate. Editors in Chief A. Baklanov and M. Ruth. October 2012. Elsevier, http://www.journals.elsevier.com/urban-climate/recent-articles/ 

Alapaty K, R. Mathur, J. Pleim, Ch. Hogrefe, S. T. Rao, V. Ramaswamy, S. Galmarini, M. Schaap, R. Vautard, P. Makar, A. Baklanov, G. Kallos, B. Vogel, R. Sokhi. New Directions: Understanding Interactions of Air Quality and Climate Change at Regional Scales. Atmospheric Environment, 49: 419–421, 2012. 

Baklanov A. and A. Ginzburg: Moscow Chapter in: WMO/IGAC Impacts of Megacities on Air Pollution and Climate. Deited by Tong Zhu, Megan Melamed. WMO, 2012, Geneva Switzerland, www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/gaw/gaw_home_en.html, ISBN 978-0-9882867-0-2, 2012. 

Baklanov, A:"The Enviromental Impact of Megacities". International Innovation. Environment. ISSN 2041-4552, p. 12-14, 2012. 

Baklanov, A.: Megacities: Urban Environment, Air Pollution, Climate Change and Human Health Interactions. Chapter 10 in: National Security and Human Health Implications of Climate Change. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security, 103-114, DOI: 10.1007/978-94-007-2430-3_10, 2012. 

Baklanov, Alexander A., Vladimir V. Penenko, Alexander G. Mahura, Anna A. Vinogradova, Nikolay F. Elansky, Elena A. Tsvetova, Olga Yu. Rigina, Leonid O. Maksimenkov, Roman B. Nuterman, Fedor A. Pogarskii, and Ashraf Zakey: Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution in Siberia. Chapter 8. In: Regional Environmental Changes in Siberia and Their Global Consequences. Series: Springer Environmental Science and Engineering. Groisman, Pavel Ya.; Gutman, Garik (Eds.), 2013, 357 p., ISBN 978-94-007-4568-1, pp. 303-346, 2012.  

Groisman, Pavel Ya, Garik Gutman, Anatoly Z. Shvidenko, Kathleen M. Bergen, Alexander A. Baklanov, and Paul W. Stackhouse Jr: Introduction: Regional Features of Siberia. Chapter 1. In: Regional Environmental Changes in Siberia and Their Global Consequences. Series: Springer Environmental Science and Engineering. Groisman, Pavel Ya.; Gutman, Garik (Eds.), 2013, 357 p., ISBN 978-94-007-4568-1, pp. 1-18., 2012.  

Gutman, Garik, Pavel Ya. Groisman, Evgeny P. Gordov, Alexander I. Shiklomanov, Nikolay I. Shiklomanov, Anatoly Z. Shvidenko, Kathleen M. Bergen, and Alexander A. Baklanov: Summary and Outstanding Scientific Challenges for Research of Environmental Changes in Siberia. Chapter 9. In: Regional Environmental Changes in Siberia and Their Global Consequences. Series: Springer Environmental Science and Engineering. Groisman, Pavel Ya.; Gutman, Garik (Eds.), 2013, 357 p., ISBN 978-94-007-4568-1, pp. 347-354, 2012.  

Keskitalo, E. C. H., A. Baklanov, I. Jakobsen: Ecology and Environment in the Barents Region". In: Barents Encyclopedia (Ed. M.-O. Olsson) (in press), Barents Encyclopedia 

Klein, T., J. Kukkonen, Å. Dahl, E. Bossioli, A. Baklanov, A.F. Vik, P. Agnew, K.D. Karatzas and M. Sofiev (2012) Interactions of Physical, Chemical, and Biological Weather Calling for an Integrated Approach to Assessment, Forecasting, and Communication of Air Quality. AMBIO, A Journal of the Human Environment, 05/2012, DOI: 10.1007/s13280-012-0288-z 

Korsholm, Smith Ulrik, Bjarne Amstrup, Jens Havskov Sørensen, Shiyu Zhuang, Roman Nuterman, Thomas Boermans: Influence of building insulation on outdoor concentrations of regional air-pollutants. Atm. Env., 54, 393-399, 2012. 

Kukkonen, J., Olsson, T., Schultz, D. M., Baklanov, A., Klein, T., Miranda, A. I., Monteiro, A., Hirtl, M., Tarvainen, V., Boy, M., Peuch, V.-H., Poupkou, A., Kioutsioukis, I., Finardi, S., Sofiev, M., Sokhi, R., Lehtinen, K. E. J., Karatzas, K., San José, R., Astitha, M., Kallos, G., Schaap, M., Reimer, E., Jakobs, H., and Eben, K.: "A review of operational, regional-scale, chemical weather forecasting models in Europe", Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 1-87, doi:10.5194, 2012. 

Langner, J., M. Engardt, A. Baklanov, J. H. Christensen, M. Gauss, C. Geels, G., B. Hedegaard, R. Nuterman, D. Simpson, J. Soares, M. Sofiev, P. Wind and A. Zakey: A multi-model study of impacts of climate change on surface ozone in Europe. ACPD, Special Issue: EMEP - an integrated system of models and observations in support of European air quality and policy, www.atmos-chem-phys-discuss.net/12/4901/2012.

Moan, J., K. P. Nielsen & A. Juzeniene: "Immediate pigment darkening: its evolutionary roles may include protection against folate photosensitization," The FASEB Journal, 26 (3), 971-975, 2012.

Penenko, V., A Baklanov, E Tsvetova, A Mahura (2012) Direct and Inverse Problems in a Variational Concept of Environmental Modeling. Pure and Applied Geophysics, 169 (3), 447-465, 2012.

Rathmann, Nicholas M., Shuting Yang, Eigil Kaas, 2012: Tropical cyclones in enhanced resolution CMIP5 experiments. Clim. Dyn., DOI:10.1007/s00382-013-1818-5.

Ruth, M. and A. Baklanov: Urban Climate Science, Planning, Policy and Investment Challenges. Urban Climate, 1: 1-4. dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.uclim.2012.10.001, 2012.

Šantl Temkiv, Tina; Finster, Kai; Hansen, Bjarne; Nielsen, Niels; Karlson, Ulrich: The microbial diversity of a storm cloud as assessed by hailstones. FEMS Microbiology Ecology.

 von Glasow, R., T.D. Jickells, A. Baklanov, G.R. Carmichael, T.M. Church, L. Gallardo, C. Hughes, M. Kanakidou, P.S. Liss, L. Mee, R. Raine, P. Ramachandran, R. Ramesh, K. Sundseth, U. Tsunogai, M. Uematsu, T. Zhu (2012) Megacities in the coastal zone. AMBIO, A Journal of the Human Environment, 10/2012, 10.1007/s13280-012-0343-9

Zhang Y, M. Bocquet, V. Mallet, Ch. Seigneur, A. Baklanov (2012) Real-time air quality forecasting, part I: History, techniques, and current status. Atmospheric Environment, dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.06.031

Zhang, Y., M. Bocquet, V. Mallet , Ch. Seigneur, A. Baklanov: "Real-Time Air Quality Forecasting, Part II: State of the Science, Current Research Needs, and Future Prospects". Atmospheric Environment, 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.02.041, Available online 27 February 2012.

Bent H Sass and Xiaohua Yang: `A verification score for high resolution NWP : Idealized and preoperational tests´. 28 pp, HIRLAM Technical Report No. 69, 2012.

  

2011

T.Iversen, A.Deckmyn, C.Santos, K.Sattler, J.B.Bremnes, H. Feddersen, I-L.Frogner "Evaluation of GlAMPES a proposed multimodel EPS for short range forecasting". Tellus 63A, pp.513-530. 2011.

 

Nielsen K.P, "Testing Cloud Parametrizations in NWP Models againt Satellite Data", HIRLAM Newsletter 58, 2011

 

Nielsen K.P.and B.H.Sass "Computationally Efficient Tilted Independent Column Calculations of Surface Radiation", HIRLAM Newsletter, 58, 2011.

 

Yang, X., "Review of Operational HIRLAM 2010", HIRLAM Newsletter 57, April 2011, pp 58-61.

 

Yang, X., "Status of the Reference System", HIRLAM Newsletter 57, April pp 62-63.

 

Gustafsson N., H-X Huang, X.Yang, K.Mogensen, M.Lindskog, O.Vignes, T.Wilhelmsson and S. Thorsteinsson, "Four-dimensional variational data assimilation for a limited area model", Tellus.

 

 

 

2010

 

Nielsen K.P., Verification of HIRLAM Cloud Forecasts with MSG Cloud Physical Products" HIRLAM Newsletter No. 55, part B, pp 11-17, 2010.

 

 

 

2009

 

Yang X. "Joint Operational Model Monitoring and Inter-Comparison in HIRLAM, ECMWF Workshop Proceedings: 12th Workshop on Meteorological Operational Systems", 2-6 Nov 2009, pp 91-93

 

2008

 

Amstrup, B., "Assessment of the impact of key terrestrial observing systems using DMI-HIRLAM". Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 134, pp. 985-1001, (2008).

 

Baklanov, A., P. Mestayer, A. Clappier, S. Zilitinkevich, S. Joffre, A. Mahura, N.W. Nielsen, 2008: Towards improving the simulation of meteorological fields in urban areas through updated/advanced surface fluxes description. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 8, 523-543.

 

Baklanov A., U. Korsholm, A. Mahura, C. Petersen, A. Gross: ENVIRO-HIRLAM: on-line coupled modelling of urban meteorology and air pollution. Advances in Science and Research, 2, 41-46 (2008),

 

Hidalgo, J., V. Masson, A. Baklanov, G. Pigeon, and L. Gimeno. Advances in Urban Climate Modeling. Trends and Directions in Climate Research: Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1146: 354–374 (2008). doi: 10.1196/annals.1446.015

 

Lauritzen, P. H., E. Kaas, B. Machenhauer and K. Lindberg, "A mass-conservative version of the semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian HIRLAM". Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, vol. 134, pp. 1583-1595, (2008).

 

Mahura A., C. Petersen, B.H.Sass., "Application of DMI-HIRLAM for Road Weather Forecasing", HiRLAM Newsletters N54, 2008.

 

Nuterman R.B., Starchenko A.V., Baklanov A.A. Development and evaluation of a microscale meteorological model for investigation of airflows in urban terrain. J. of Computational Technologies (2008), 13(3): 37-43.

 

Yang X., "Annual Status Review of Operational Hirlam.", Hirlam Newsletter + Hirlam All Staff Meeting Brussels, April, 2008.

 

Yang X., "Development of HIRLAM/HARMONIE monitoring system,", Hirlam Newsletter + Hirlam All Staff meeting Brussels, April, 2008.

 

Yang X., "Status of the Reference Hirlam", HIRLAM Newsletter, 2008.

 

Yang X., "Status of the Reference System", HIRLAM Newsletter, pp. 91-92, 2008.

 

Zilitinkevich, S. S., I. Mammarella, A. A. Baklanov, and S. M. Joffre: The effect of stratification on the roughness length and displacement height. Boundary-Layer Meteorology. 129: 179-190 (2008). DOI: 10.1007/s10546-008-9307-9

 

2007

 

Baklanov, A. and B. Grisogono: Atmospheric Boundary Layers: Nature, Theory and Application to Environmental Modelling and Security. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 125, pp 157-160 (2007)

 

Draper N.C., M. Lester, S.W.H. Cowley, P J.A. Wild, S.E. Milan, G. Provan, A.Grocott, A.N. Fazakerley, A. Lahiff, J.A. Davies, J.-M. Bosqued, J.P. Dewhurst, R.Nakamura, C.J. Owen, J. Watermann. M.G. Henderson, H.J. Singer, E. Donovan, "Cluster magnetotail observations of a tailward-travelling plasmoid atsubstorm expansion phase onset and field aligned currents in the plasmasheet boundary layer", Ann. Geophys., vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 3667-3683, 2007..

 

Piringer, M., S. Joffre, A. Baklanov, A. Christen, M. Deserti, K. De Ridder, S. Emeis, P. Mestayer, M. Tombrou, D. Middleton, K. Baumannstanzer, A. Dandou, A. Karppinen, J. Burzynski. The surface energy balance and the mixing height in urban areas – activities and recommendations of COST Action 715. Bound.-Layer. Meteor. 124, pp 3-24 (2007)

 

Woetmann Nielsen.N., "Udviklingsmønsteret i kraftige extratropiske lavtryk del 1: "Bombe-udvikling" af Shapiro- Keyser typen ved Færøerne den 17.-18. marts 2007", Vejret, no. 113, pp. 25-32, 2007..

 

Zilitinkevich S, Esau I, Baklanov A. Further comments on the equilibrium height of neutral and stable planetary boundary layers. Quart J Roy Meteorol Soc, 133, pp 265-271 (2007)

 

2006

 

Lindskog M., N. Gustafsson, K.S. Mogensen: "Representation of background error standard deviations in a limited area model data assimilation system Tellus 58A", pp 430-444 (2006).

 

Navascuès B. , M. Lindskog, X. Yang, B. Amstrup, "Diagnosis of error statistics in the HIRLAM 3D-VAR", HIRLAM Technical Report, no. 66, 2006.

 

Zilitinkevich, S.S., J.C.R. Hunt, A.A. Grachev, I.N. Esau, D.P. Lalas, E. Akylas, M. Tombrou, C.W. Fairall, H.J.S. Fernando, A. Baklanov, S.M. Joffre."The influence of large convective eddies on the surface layer turbulence". Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 132, pp 1426-1456 (2006).

 

Zilitinkevich, S., H. Savijärvi, A. Baklanov, B. Grisogono, K. Myrberg, 2006: "Meetings on the planetary boundary layer theory, modelling and applications. Boundary Layer Meteorology", 119, pp 591-593 (2006)

 

2005

 

Baklanov, A., P. Mestayer, A. Clappier, S. Zilitinkevich, S. Joffre, A. Mahura, N. W. Nielsen, 2005: On the parameterisation of the urban atmospheric sublayer in meteorological models. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 5, 12119-12176.

 

Mahura, A., S. Leroyer, P. Mestayer, I. Calmet, S. Dupont, N. Long, A. Baklanov, C. Petersen, K. Sattler, N. W. Nielsen, 2005: Large eddy simulation of urban features for Copenhagen metropolitan area. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 5, 11183-11213.

 

Sattler, K.; Feddersen, H.; 2005: Limited-area short-range ensemble predictions targeted for heavy rain in Europe. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 300 - 312.

 

Zilitinkevich S. S., J.C.R. Hunt, A.A. Grachev, I.N.Esau, D.P.Lalas, E. Akylas, M. Tombrou, C.W. Fairall, H.J.S. Fernando, A. Baklanov, S.M. Joffre, The effect of large eddies on the convective heat/mass transfer over complex terrain: advanced theory and its validation against experimental and LES data. Croatian Meteorological Journal, 40 (2005), 20-26.

 

Zilitinkevich, S.S., I.N. Esau, A. Baklanov, Atmospheric boundary layers in storms: advanced theory and modelling applications. Advances in Geosciences (2005) 2: 47 - 49.

 

2004

 

Sattler, K. and H. Feddersen., Limited-area short-range ensemble predictions targeted for heavy rain in Europe. HESS accepted 2004.

 

2003

 

De Roo, A.P.J., Bartholmes, J., Bongioannini-Cerlini, P., Todini, E., Bates, P.D., Horrit, M., Hunter, N., Beven, K., Pappenberger, F., Heise, E., Rivin, G., Hils, M., Hollingsworth, A., Holst, B., Kwadijk, J., Reggiani, P., Van Dijk, M., Sattler, K., Sprokkereef, E., 2003: Development of a European flood forecasting system. Intl. J. River Basin Management, 1, pp 49 - 59.

 

Hasager, C.B., N,W. Nielsen, N.O. Jensen, J.H. Christensen and E. Dellwik, 2003. Effective roughness calculated from satellite-derived land cover maps and hedge information and used in a weather forecasting model. Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 109, 227--254.

 

Haase, J., Ge, M., Vedel, H., and Calais, E., Accuracy and variability of GPS Tropospheric Delay Measurements of Water Vapor in the Western Mediterranean, Jour. Appl. Met., 42, 1547, 2003.

 

Nielsen,N. W. and B. H. Sass. A numerical, high-resolution study of the life cycle of the severe storm over Denmark on 3 December 1999. Tellus, 55A, No. 4, pp 338-351, 2003.

 

Vedel, H. and Huang, X.-Y., Impact of ground based GPS data on NWP forecasts, Jour. Met. Soc, Jap., accepted, 2003.

 

Zilitinkevich, S. and A. Baklanov: Calculation of the height of stable boundary layers in practical applications. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 105(3), pp. 389-409.

 

Zilitinkevich, S., A. Baklanov, J. Rost, A.-S. Smedman, V. Lykosov & P. Calanca: Diagnostic and prognostic equations for the depth of the stably stratified Ekman boundary layer. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 128, pp. 25-46.

 

2002

 

Pugnahi, S., Boccolari, M., Fazlagic, S., Pacione, R., Santangelo, R., Vedel, H., and Vespe, F., Comparison of independent integrated water vapour estimates from gps and sun photometer measurements and from a meteorological model, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 27, 355, 2002.

 

Sattler, K. and X.-Y. Huang. Structure function characteristics for 2 metre temperature and relative humidity in different horizontal resolutions. Tellus, 54A, No. 1, pp. 14-33, 2002.

 

2001

 

Gustafsson, N., L. Berre, S. Hörnquist, X.-Y. Huang, M. Lindskog, B. Navascuès, K. S. Mogensen and S. Thorsteinsson. Three-dimensional variational data assimilation for a limited area model. Part I: General formulation and the background error constraint. Tellus, 53A, No. 4, pp. 425-446, 2001.

 

Haase, J., Calais, E., Talaya, J., Rius, A., Vespe, F., Santangelo, R., Huang, X.-Y., Davila, J. M., Ge, M., Cucurull, L., Flores, A., Sciarretta, C., Pacione, R., Boccolari, M., Pugnaghi, S., Vedel, H., Mogensen, K. S., Yang, X., and Garate, J., The contributions of the MAGIC project to the cost 716 objectives of assessing the operational potential of ground based GPS meteorology on an international scale, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 26A, 433, 2001.

 

Haase, J., Vedel, H., Ge, M., and Calais, E., GPS zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) variability in the mediterranean, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 26A, 439, 2001.

 

Jacob, D., U. Andrae, L. P. Graham, U. Kastens, C. Koepken, R. Lindau, R. Podzun, B. Rockel, F. Rubel, B. H. Sass, R. Smith, B. J. J. M. Van Den Hurk and X. Yang. A comprehensive model intercomparison study investigating the water budget during the PIDCAP period. Meteo. & Atmos. Phys., 77, pp. 19-43, 2001.

 

Lindskog, M., N. Gustafsson, B. Navascuès, K. S. Mogensen, X.-Y. Huang, X. Yang, U. Andrae, L. Berre, S. Thorsteinsson and J. Rantakokko. Three-dimensional variational data assimilation for a limited area model. Part II: Observation handling and assimilation experiments. Tellus, 53A, No. 4, pp. 447-468, 2001.

 

Vedel, H., K.S. Mogensen and X.-Y. Huang, Calculation of zenith delays from meteorological data, comparison of NWP model, radiosonde and GPS delays. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 26A, pp 497-502, 2001.

 

Walpersdorf, A., Calais, E., Haase, J., Eymard, L., m. Desbois, and Vedel, H., Atmospheric gradients estimated by GPS compared to a high resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP) model, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 26A, 147, 2001.

 

2000

 

Huang, X.-Y., Variational analysis using spatial filters, Mon. Wea., Rev., 128, pp. 2588-2600, 2000.

 

Nielsen, N. W. and B. H. Sass. A numerical high resolution study of the severe cyclone over Denmark on 3 December 1999. Weather and Forecasting, 2000.

 

Vedel, H., K. S. Mogensen and X.-Y. Huang. Calculation of zenith delays from meteorological data, comparison of nwp model, radiosonde and GPS delays", Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 2000.

 

1999

 

Amstrup, B. og X.-Y. Huang, Impact of the additional FASTEX radiosonde obervations on the HIRLAM data assimilation and forecasting system, Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 125, pp. 3359-3374, 1999.

 

Huang, X.-Y., A genralization of using an adjoint model in intermittent data assimilation systems, Mon. Wea. Rev., 127, 766-787, 1999.

 

Sattler, K., S. Traup og B. Kruse, A Cluster Space Calibration Scheme for Synthetic Wind Statistics calculated with a Mesoscale Model and its Application to regional Wind Climate Studies, Meteorol. Atmos. Phys., 71, 188-203, 1999.

 

Yang, X., B. H. Sass, G. Elgered, J. M. Johanssson, T.R. Emardson, A comparison of precipitable water vapour estimates by an NWP simulation and GPS observations, J. Appl. Meteor., 38, 941-956, 1999.

 

1998

 

Zilitinkevich, S., P.-E. Johansson, D.V. Mironov and A. Baklanov, A Similarity-Theory Model for Wind Profile and Resistance Law in Stably Stratified Planetary Boundary Layers, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 74-76, 1-3, 209-218, 1998

 

1997

 

Huang, X.-Y., N. Gustafsson and E. Källén, Using an adjoint model to improve an optimum interpolation based data assimilation system, Tellus, 49A, 161-176.

 

Nielsen, Niels Woetmann, An early Autumn polar low formation over the Norwegian Sea, J. Geophys. Res. 102, D12, 13955-13973.

 

Sass, Bent Hansen, A numerical model for prediction of of slippery roads, J. Appl. Meteor., 36, no. 6, 801-817, 1997.

 

Yu, X.-D., X.-Y.Huang, L.Laursen, og E. Rasmussen, On the sensitivity of precipitation forecasts to the moist physics and the horizontal resolution of numerical model, Acta Meteorological Sinica, 11, 432-445, 1997.

 

Yu, X.-D., X. Y. Huang, L. Laursen og E. Rasmussen, Application of the HIRLAM system in China - torrential rain forecasting experiments in Yangtze river valley, Quarterly Journal of Applied Meteorology, 8, 498-502, 1997.